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CALCULUS OF VARIATION HAND WRITTEN NOTE

Calculus of variations is a field of mathematical analysis that uses variations, which are small changes in functions and functionals, to find maxima and minima of functionals: mappings from a set of functions to the real numbers. Functionals are often expressed as definite integrals involving functions and their derivatives. Functions that maximize or minimize functionals … Read more

REAL ANALYSIS:-TOPOLOGY ON R AND R HAND WRITTEN NOTE

In mathematics, real analysis is the theory of real numbers and real functions, which are real-valued functions of a real variable. Real analysis studies properties of real functions like convergence, limits, continuity, smoothness, differentiability and integrability. Real analysis and complex analysis are both branches of mathematical analysis. The theorems of real analysis rely intimately upon … Read more